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From ancient mines to the finishes of the rise

21 October 2022, 13:12 1641

The land of the Republic of Uzbekistan has a huge amount of various mineral resources. There are more than 2025 mines in Uzbekistan. Including 867 on construction materials, 649 on underground water, 244 on hydrocarbons (oil, gas, condensate), 97 on precious metals (gold, silver), 12 on non-ferrous and rare metals, 38 on radioactive metals. , 37 resources of mining raw materials, 32 resources of mining and chemistry, 30 resources of precious stones, 7 resources of coal and oil shale, 5 resources of ferrous metals were recorded. The raw value of mineral resources in our country is estimated at 5.7 trillion dollars. Uzbekistan ranks among the world's leading countries in terms of reserves of some minerals (gold, uranium, copper, phosphorites, molybdenum, etc.). Undoubtedly, geology is the first direction that mankind approached as a science. The geology of Uzbekistan was founded on the basis of the study of the Almalyk ore deposit. Uzbekistan is one of the countries with gold, silver and other valuable land reserves that are rare in the earth's crust. More than 15 non-ferrous metals, which are mined together with copper ores, undoubtedly serve to increase the economic power of our country. Uzbekistan's favorable climatic conditions, wealth of strategic reserve resources, large concentration of mineral, non-ferrous metals and precious ore deposits and high efficiency of mobilization of mines for extraction and processing, abundance of satellite elements in mineral components, the location of mineral components, well-developed mines also increase our opportunities. If we look at the current activity of "Almalyk MMC" JSC, which is the center of non-ferrous metallurgy of Uzbekistan, we can see the significant place of geology here. According to the Decision of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On additional measures to expand the production of non-ferrous and precious metals on the basis of the mines of Almalyk MMC JSC", a strategy is being implemented to increase the volume of production of non-ferrous and precious metals. The first stage of the implementation of this strategy is to increase cathode copper production to 290,000 tons, gold to 38 tons, and silver to 203 tons in 2021-2025. The second stage of the strategy is planned to increase copper production to 400,000 tons, gold to 50 tons, and silver to 270 tons in 2024-2028. This is an extremely challenging and promising step. On the basis of the activity of AMMC at the same time and the prospective goals set for itself, there are definite geological studies. It would not be wrong to say that the history of the geology of the Complex dates back to the distant past.

The Greek historian and geographer Strabo, who lived in 64/63-23/24 BC, in his work known as "Geography" describes the geography of ancient Central Asia, the tribes that lived there, their customs, language and traditions, the Great Silk. while giving information about the places he passed through, he writes that the peoples living along the banks of Jayhun and Sayhun used gold instead of iron in the equipment of horses and horses due to the abundance of gold and silver. From the 4th century to the 12th century AD, in Shosh and Iloq, which are considered to be the centers of Central Asia, metal smelting and extraction of copper, lead, gold, and silver from it was highly developed, as historical data and ancient copper industry sites clearly prove. In the study of waste products preserved in ancient mining sites, scientists came across extremely interesting aspects. That is, there is only 0.5-1.5% of copper left in the rocks of the IV-XII centuries, and sometimes it is around 2%, but today, mechanized systems and high technologies are used to extract copper. average copper content in slag is 0.5-0.8%. The occurrence of terms such as "Kohisim", "Miskon" and "Golden-found" in the names of geographical locations in our region indicates that the history of the current Almalyk metallurgical industry goes back to the distant past.

Not only in our republic, but also in the place of the largest copper-molybdenum mine in the world, geological studies in the Karamazar area began before the Arab conquest. In 1875, the Russian geologist G.D. Romanovsky publishes the first information on the geological structure of the Central Asian region. Karamozor was mentioned for the first time in the geological research conducted by the Russian geologist I.R. Musketov, who was his contemporary. In 1922-25, "Karamozor" began to write its historical chronicle. Since 1924, the search for mineral deposits in our country has begun. In 1924, geologist S.F. By Mashkovsev, he writes his views on the deposits of oxidized ores in the Kalmokgyr mining area. S.F., who were the founders of the study of Karamazar. Mashkovsev and V.N. After the Nasledovs, F.I. Wolfson, K.L. The Pojarskys, followed by the representatives of the new generation of Uzbek geology H.A. Abdullayev, A.V. Korolev and others followed the tracks of ancient mines, began to find and explore non-ferrous metals and gold deposits. In 1931, the Almalyk Geological Exploration Party was established. From the beginning of that year to 1934, 126 wells with a length of more than 16,000 meters were drilled in the Kalmokgyr mining area. In June of the same year, the first accounts of reserves were taken. In 1939, the exact numbers of the reserves found by the first project of Kalmokgyr were confirmed. During the Second World War, the efforts of geologists were focused on finding reserves of fuel and energy resources, tungsten, and raw materials for the ferrous metallurgy industry. Geological research carried out from the years of post-war economic recovery to the 1960s is distinguished by its effectiveness. It was in those years that the lead mining field was opened, and the reserves of the Muruntov gold ore field were evaluated in detail. In particular, if we look at the history of the Kalmoqqir mine in the next quarter of a century, it can be concluded that Kalmoqqir began its new history of growth from the first years of our country's state independence. In 1993, 19.5 million tons of ore was mined, and in the following year, 13.6 million tons of ore was mined. Since 1996, this figure has gradually increased. In 1993, mining of the upper layers was 12,027 thousand cubic meters, and in 1998 it was only 5,184,6 thousand cubic meters. In 2010, a sharp increase in surface mining was achieved, and this pace has been maintained steadily until now. In 2012, Kalmoqqir miners finished the year with 30.9 million tons, and in 2013 with 31.033 million tons. During the next three years, the work of opening the upper layers also increased sharply. In the last financial year alone, instead of 6.8 million cubic meters, 13.3 million cubic meters of overburden rocks were extracted. On the 23rd anniversary of our country's independence, the head mine of the Complex entered with a special gift and in 2014, Kalmoqkir managed to send its billion-ton ore to the Complex's beneficiation factories. with its implementation, the capacities of AMMC, including the Kalmokgyr mine, will increase several times.

Hasan Abdullayev,

Correspondent of "Rangli Metallar" newspaper

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